Major Ethnic Groups of Uganda and population – The top 10 tribes

Major Ethnic Groups of Uganda and population – The top 10 tribes

Tribes in Uganda and their population can be classified into wide linguistic ethnic groups. In the central, southern and western parts of the country are occupied by the Bantu speaking majority and the eastern, northern and northwestern part of the country is occupied by the non-bantu speaking groups.

Belonging to many ethnic groups, Ugandans speak over 30 different African languages, English and Swahili are the countries official languages. The largest group is the Baganda and they speak Luganda.

The main dance they practice here is Tamenhaibunga which expresses the importance of love and friendship. The name means, ‘good friends drink together and don’t fight in case they break the gourd holding the drink’. The different people in different tribes of Uganda have different dances. The widely recognized dance is Kiganda,

Kiganda dance

where people move their lower body to drumbeat.

Most people produce their own food and eat two meals a day, lunch and supper. Breakfast is often a cup of tea and porridge. Meals are prepared by women and girls. Men and boys above age 12 do not sit in the kitchen.

Here is the list of the top 10 tribes of Uganda:


Baganda tribes

Baganda tribes are called as Kings Men because of the significant role of their king-the Kabaka in their political, social and cultural institution. The Kabaka ruled over a hierarchy of chiefs who collected taxes in the form of food and livestock. All of the portions received are distributed through the hierarchy, eventually reaching the Kabaka’s palace in the form of taxes.

  • The Baganda are located along the north and western shores of Lake Victoria in the east of the African nation of Uganda.
  • The former capital of Buganda is now occupied by Baganda. It is south to the Bunyoro Kingdom and west to Nile River.
  • Baganda is the largest tribe in Uganda. It comprises more than one-fourth of Uganda’s total landmass.
  • The Baganda speak a Bantu language called Luganda. Like other African languages, Luganda is tonal, meaning that some words are differentiated by pitch.
  • The Baganda is the most dominant tribes in Uganda and their population is around 35 million.
  • The majority of people present in Baganda are Christians where some follow catholic and some follow protestant, about 15-20% are Muslims who follow Islam.
  • The main food of Baganda is matooke, a plantain which is boiled, steamed and served with groundnut. Other few foods include; eggs, fish, beans, groundnuts, beef, chicken, and goats, as well as termites and grasshoppers in season.


Banyankole tribe

The Banyankole is located in south-western Uganda. The Mugabe [king] was an absolute ruler. He claimed all the cattle throughout the country as his own. Chiefs were ranked by the number of cattle they possessed.

  • Banyankole is divided into a high-ranked caste of pastoralists and lower-ranked caste of farmers.
  • The Bahima are cattle herders and Bairu are farmers who also care for goat and sheep.
  • The Banyankole speak Bantu language called Runyankole. In this language, nouns are composed of modifiers known as prefixes, infixes and suffixes.
  • Legends and Tales teach proper moral behaviour to the young. Both men and women excel in a verbal art form with emphasizing riddles and proverbs.
  • Folktales draw on themes such as royalty, cattle, hunting and other concerns of Banyankole.
  • The majority of Banyankole are Christians and celebrate Christian holidays including Christmas and Easter.
  • The dressing style differentiates Banyankole by rank and gender. Chiefs traditionally wore long robes of cowskins. Ordinary citizens wear a small portion of cowskin over their shoulders. Today, Banyankole wear modern western-style clothing.
  • The Bahima herders consume milk and butter and drink fresh blood from their cattle. Beef is also a very important food. Buttermilk is drunk by women and children only. Children can eat rabbit but men eat only the meat of cow and buffalo.

    you can get all Ugandan tribes list from here


basoga people

The Basoga are the eastern neighbours of the Baganda. They are located between the lake Victoria and Lake Kioga which is the present district of Kamuli, jinja and Iganga.

  • The Basoga were disunited people. They could not unite even in the face of a common enemy. This explains when they incessantly prone to foreign influence first from Bunyoro and later form Buganda.
  • The language of Busoga is Lusoga which is approximately closer to Luganda.
  • The Basoga is one of the tribes in Uganda and their population is 8 per cent of total Uganda population
  • The Basoga believed in the existence of the spirit world. They called the Supreme Being lubaale.
  • In Busoga, each clan had land and the clan head was responsible for the clans land. The land cannot pass ownership from one clan to another clan.


Bakiga people

The Bakiga people are located in northern Rwanda and Southern Uganda. They are sometimes called as Kiga or Chiga. The Bakiga people are a great example for a tribe that follows and still practices many of their old traditions today. The Bakiga lived in clans, which has a chief who is not supposed to marry outside his clan.

  • The Bakiga speak a Bantu language called Rukiga.
  • The Bakiga are very hospitable and enjoy the privilege of having a mixed language.
  • They believed in Ruhanga, the creator of all things.
  • The important cults were Nyabindi – the spirit of a much-respected rain-maker.
  • Bakiga was mainly agriculturalist and kept less livestock than other pastoralist groups.
  • They grew sorghum, peas, millets, sweet potatoes, vegetables, and beans.
  • It is still considered good manners for visitors to join a family eating a meal without an invitation.
  • The Bakiga were producing beer from sorghum and still do the same.
  • The main instruments they use are;
    • Omukuli [Flute]
    • Amakondere [trumpets]
    • Endingidi [Fiddle]
    • Enanga [trough zither]
    • Engoma [Drums]


Iteso tradition

Iteso tradition relates that they originated in Sudan and moved to the south over the period of centuries. They presently live in the Teso-sub region, in the present district of Amurai, Soroti, Kumi, Tororo and Busia district. Feel the tradition of Ugandan people by visiting Uganda

  • The major food crops are Sorghum and finger millet.
  • Womens grow vegetables in the garden and gather various wild foods, mushrooms and flying ants, as a delicacy.
  • Men herd cattle and grazing of animals was regarded as a commonly held right until the late 1960s.
  • The age graders known as Aturio provided the basis of military organization.
  • The war leaders were called Aruwok and the army was called the Ajore.
  • They have 3 types of birth among the Iteso; Single child, twins and spiritual birth. The spiritual birth was said to be in the form of Air or Water.
  • The newborn baby would be initiated into the clan by conducting a ritual ceremony called etale.
  • The Iteso did not regard death as normal consequences. Death was attributed to ancestral spirits and witchcrafts.


Langi peoples

Langi people live in Lango sub-region, north of Lake Kyoga. The Lango is one of the tribes in Uganda and their population is 1.5 million according to 2002 census.

  • The language of Langi is Luo.
  • The tribal symbol of Langi is Rhino.
  • Lango people had a government before British rule.
  • The Lango government was elected through clan chiefs with the authority of people over their clans.
  • Pre-colonial education was both formal and informal.
  • Children were taught by their mother or siblings morality and how to address their relatives and respect other people.
  • Boys were taught by their father or male relatives.
  • The girls were taught by their mother or female relatives.
  • Games, folk stories, myths, proverbs, and riddles played an important role in Lango education.
  • Chiefs were heredity in some clans.  


Acholi people

Acholi people are the ethnic group from the districts of Agago, Amuru, Gulu and Magwe from south Sudan. The Acholi are the Lua people who are said to have come to northern Uganda from the area now known as Bahr el Ghazal in South Sudan.

  • The Acholi language is a Western Nilotic language, classified as Luo and is mutually intelligible with Lango and other Luo languages.
  • Acholi is one of the largest tribes in Uganda and their population is over 2.0million
  • The traditional dwelling places were circular huts with a high peak, furnished with a mud sleeping-platform.
  • They were skilled hunters, using nuts and spears.
  • They kept goats, sheep and cattle.
  • The Acholi recognized two distinct birth customs namely the normal birth and the Jok Anywala [Godly] birth.
  • Acholi believed in a Supreme Being called jok. The shrine for jok was called as Abila.
  • The Acholi sing about every incident but some of their songs refer to well-known incidents in the past.


Bagisu  tribe uganda

The Bagisu lives mainly in Mbale district of Uganda on the slopes of Mount Elhon. They have no tradition of an early migration from anywhere. They assert that their ancestors were called Mundu and Sera.

  • The main and unique social custom of Bagisu is Male circumcision.
  • The Bagisu are known for the fearsome and aggressive and strength by their neighbours.
  • The person who is uncircumcised is not allowed to marry a Bagisu woman.
  • The language they speak is Massaba.
  • The Bagisu is one of the tribes in Uganda and their population is around 9,53,936.
  • The tribe was divided into clans – two or three around Mbale.


The Lugbara tribe are the ethnic group who mainly live in the West Nile region of Uganda and in the area of the Democratic Republic of Congo. They are settled agriculturalist, subsisting primarily by shifting hoe cultivation.

  • Marriage entails a substantial bride-price in livestock or ion implements.
  • Polygyny is the rule.
  • The majority of Lugbara still practice ancestor worship, they believe in a creator god, Adroa.
  • They are people least affected by the modern changes in Uganda and maintaining a strong sense of their own identity.
  • The cultural symbol of Lugbara is Leopard.
  • They are the predominant keepers of guinea in Uganda.
  • There are settled subsistence farmers.
  • Cassava is now the traditional staple.
  • They grow Millet, Sorghum, Legumes, Pigeon peas and variety of root crops.
  • Marriage is forbidden between members of the same clan or with man’s or woman’s mother close kin.
  • Polygyn is a male ideal, about a third of a man having more than one wife.

Uganda is a home for many tribes that speak different languages. Uganda has 54 tribes and about 9 indigenous communities that formally came to recognition. English is the official language of Uganda. Luganda and Swahili are widely spoken in most part of the country. Uganda is also home for Mountain gorillas and other primates.


  1. Robert Waliaula says:

    Thanks l have learned alot, and now the great
    Culture, history and tribes of Uganda.
    I am interested in knowing more about Uganda, because Iam told that ancestors came from there. So I strongly believe that Uganda is my motherland.
    One day when I will get to know my roots , I will move back to my beloved Country.
    My names; Robert Waliaula ( Keyan Ciitzen, but Ungandan by blod)

  2. Robert Waliaula says:

    Thanks I have learned alot and now I know the great
    Culture, history and tribes of Uganda. Iam interested
    in knowing more about Uganda, because Iam told
    That my ancestors come from there. So I strongly believe that Uganda is my Motherland. One day when I will get to know my roots. I will go back to my beloved Country.
    I also ask the Government of Uganda to help me, come back to my ancestral land.
    My Names: Robert Waliaula (Kenya)

  3. Tony says:

    Iam interested in knowing about the Sebeis / Sabaot of Mt. Elgon Kapchorwa, their history , related tribes in uganda and else where & their way of living and the Origin…

  4. Rratsheko Mashilo Nthtie says:

    Based in South Africa, I have learned a lot from the information with few cultural similarities practices.

  5. Mike Lukundo says:

    I thank the author for this wonderful compilation about some tribes in Uganda. However, I have noted a few pieces of misinformation. One, the landmass occupied by the Baganda cannot be one-quarter of Uganda’s surface area. Two, they (Baganda) cannot add up to 35million people: that was the total population of Uganda according to 2002 census. Three, that name of some kind of dance (kamenhaibuga) is not a Luganda word. Four, the supreme spiritual being of the Basoga is Kibumba: Lubaale refers to any other spirit that assists the supreme deity (Kibumba among the Basoga or Katonda among the Baganda). The ba-lubaale (plural) could be the equivalent of the angels in the biblical/quranic myths of the Jews and Arabs.

  6. Okello Eugenio says:

    Why do you represent the langis with the karamojong.

    Please be serious.

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